name servers??

  • whatlikesit12345
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Post 3+ Months Ago

how do name servers work? like i know its something like

ns1.zi***.net
ns2.zi***.net

but how do they work in general?


i understand now why this was moved. thanks
  • Anonymous
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Post 3+ Months Ago

  • capetek
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Post 3+ Months Ago

A name server is a computer that has both the software and the data (zone files) needed to resolve domain names to Internet Protocol (IP) numbers.
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Post 3+ Months Ago

A program or computer that translates names from one form into another. For example, a Domain Name Server (also called a "host server") performs the mapping of domain names to IP numbers.
  • whatlikesit12345
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Post 3+ Months Ago

ya ok but how do the know where your files and folders are. and not get someone elses?
  • Daemonguy
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Post 3+ Months Ago

Uh, well sort of.

DNS (Domain name system) provides a mapping of host names to IP addresses (the latter of which is how computers actually find and communicate with one another ).

It's not practical for one entity to host all of the zone information (a 'zone' being that which it is authoritative for, such as att.com, stanford.edu, ibm.com etc.). DNS allows you to distribute host information, and make various organizations authority over their own domains, or domains which have been requested of them to maintain said records for, this is called delegation.

In the beginning (cue dramatic Wagner accompaniment) there were few hosts on the ARPAnet, so a single file, called hosts.txt was sent to each and every system on the network. This file was used to resolve the name of the system you were trying to reach, to it's address. (The familiar /etc/hosts file was compiled from this original. ) The SRI-NIC maintained this file and was responsible for distribution via ftp. When ARPAnet moved to TCP/IP the networked exploded, and the hosts file became unwieldy to manage.

DNS was designed to be more robust and provide a very unix-like hierarchical tree structure, much like relative pathnames in unix.

As an example, company qwerty contacts me as as a host, and requests that I provide space for their domain, that they might provide certain web services, mail services, application ware, etc. Of course, for a fee I do this... and using a registration process I become the technical contact and host for that domain. The domain itself is registered to the TLD's (Top Level Domains; com edu, gov, mil, etc.
Now my nameserver, of which I run Unix Bind (which for this purpose I will call ns1.daemonguy.com ) is authoritative for this domain. Any request to qwerty.com will come to ns1.daemonguy.com for lookup, and if it exists, ns1 will respond witht he proper IP address.
The flow is;
web client -> request http://www.qwerty.com -> TLD -> web client (go to ns1.daemonguy.com for resolution) -> ns1.daemonguy.com -> web client (here's the IP mapping to http://www.qwerty.com; 100.100.100.100 -> request http connection to 100.100.100.100.
This is very basic, and there are a few more factors to consider, like non-authoritative answering, but that pretty much sums up NS's themselves.

Again, without going into recursion or iterative lookups, inverse queries, caching and the like... this is extremely basic, however I hope it answers your question as to the nature of nameservers.

They don't really have anything to do with your files or 'folders', though I might be missing your meaning.

Cheers.
  • harryhood
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Post 3+ Months Ago

Name servers and DNS map a domain name or url to a IP address.

It is left to the configuration of the server, not the name servers, running at that IP address makes sure the correct files and folders are displayed for the domain being viewed.

For example an apache web servers httpd.conf file maps domain names to their associated folder and files.

I think that is what you are asking about. :?:
  • rDolay
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Post 3+ Months Ago

Simply and pratically:
ns1.zi***.net and ns2.zi***.net are the childnameservers that registered to be privately from the zi***.net domain registerar
and
the subdomains that have their A and NS records at the DNS zone of domain zi***.net at the server where this domain hosted.

They tell that any domains that have the nameservers as ns1.zi***.net and ns2.zi***.net are claiming and working from the assigned ip's to the ns1.zi***.net and ns2.zi***.net .

The ip's that assigned to the ns1.zi***.net and ns2.zi***.net could be the main server ip's and will be only virtual Internet Protocol numbers too.
  • Daemonguy
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Post 3+ Months Ago

dolay wrote:
Simply and pratically:
ns1.zi***.net and ns2.zi***.net are the childnameservers that registered to be privately from the zi***.net domain registerar
and
the subdomains that have their A and NS records at the DNS zone of domain zi***.net at the server where this domain hosted.

They tell that any domains that have the nameservers as ns1.zi***.net and ns2.zi***.net are claiming and working from the assigned ip's to the ns1.zi***.net and ns2.zi***.net .

The ip's that assigned to the ns1.zi***.net and ns2.zi***.net could be the main server ip's and will be only virtual Internet Protocol numbers too.

uh.... huh?

Not trying to be funny, just really don't understand any of that.

Cheers.
  • harryhood
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Post 3+ Months Ago

Daemonguy wrote:
dolay wrote:
Simply and pratically:
ns1.zi***.net and ns2.zi***.net are the childnameservers that registered to be privately from the zi***.net domain registerar
and
the subdomains that have their A and NS records at the DNS zone of domain zi***.net at the server where this domain hosted.

They tell that any domains that have the nameservers as ns1.zi***.net and ns2.zi***.net are claiming and working from the assigned ip's to the ns1.zi***.net and ns2.zi***.net .

The ip's that assigned to the ns1.zi***.net and ns2.zi***.net could be the main server ip's and will be only virtual Internet Protocol numbers too.

uh.... huh?

Not trying to be funny, just really don't understand any of that.

Cheers.


I was thinking exactly the same thing. Nothing personal but that does not seem "Simply and pratically," if you ask me.
  • rDolay
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Post 3+ Months Ago

MORE SIMPLE FOR THE WHOM CANT UNDERSTAND THE POST ABOVE

A: First, your request for mydomain.com is sent to your internet service provider's DNS servers. Most ISPs will cache DNS information, in order to reduce traffic on their system. If your ISP's DNS servers have the DNS information for mydomain.com, they will forward your request directly to the mydomain.com server.

B: If your ISP's DNS servers do not have information for mydomain.com, then they will forward your request to the internet's root name servers . The root name servers keep records of every single domain name, and which registrar it belongs to (the updates are sent out daily - not every 5 minutes like ours).
In this case, the root name servers find that mydomain.com is registered by Network Solutions, so the root name servers forward your request to Network Solutions.

C: When the Network Solutions systems received your request, it checks its WHOIS record for mydomain.com. Since mydomain.com is pointing to the name servers (ns1.mydomain.com and ns2.mydomain.com) , Network Solutions forwards your request to the network.

D: The name servers contain zone files for each domain hosted on the network. When the name servers receive your request, they check the zone file for mydomain.com and see that it is pointing to IP address of the main server. The name servers forward your request to the mydomain.com server, which accepts the request and sends the appropriate web page back to your browser.

When you sign up for web hosting , you will be sent instructions asking you to update your DNS server records at your domain registrar. Once you have made the updates you will need to allow 24-72 hours for the changed information to make it around the internet and to the root servers.

P.S. really not personal :D
P.S2. what a meet today we have our main nameservers are changing , i wish there wont be any problem because of the multiple DNS zones of Ensim accounts that i created at the first and new server to make 0 downtime or whole ensim accounts will crash for 24hours :))
  • Daemonguy
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Post 3+ Months Ago

dolay wrote:
MORE SIMPLE FOR THE WHOM CANT UNDERSTAND THE POST ABOVE

A: First, your request for mydomain.com is sent to your internet service provider's DNS servers. Most ISPs will cache DNS information, in order to reduce traffic on their system. If your ISP's DNS servers have the DNS information for mydomain.com, they will forward your request directly to the mydomain.com server.

B: If your ISP's DNS servers do not have information for mydomain.com, then they will forward your request to the internet's root name servers . The root name servers keep records of every single domain name, and which registrar it belongs to (the updates are sent out daily - not every 5 minutes like ours).
In this case, the root name servers find that mydomain.com is registered by Network Solutions, so the root name servers forward your request to Network Solutions.

C: When the Network Solutions systems received your request, it checks its WHOIS record for mydomain.com. Since mydomain.com is pointing to the name servers (ns1.mydomain.com and ns2.mydomain.com) , Network Solutions forwards your request to the network.

D: The name servers contain zone files for each domain hosted on the network. When the name servers receive your request, they check the zone file for mydomain.com and see that it is pointing to IP address of the main server. The name servers forward your request to the mydomain.com server, which accepts the request and sends the appropriate web page back to your browser.

When you sign up for web hosting , you will be sent instructions asking you to update your DNS server records at your domain registrar. Once you have made the updates you will need to allow 24-72 hours for the changed information to make it around the internet and to the root servers.

P.S. really not personal :D
P.S2. what a meet today we have our main nameservers are changing , i wish there wont be any problem because of the multiple DNS zones of Ensim accounts that i created at the first and new server to make 0 downtime or whole ensim accounts will crash for 24hours :))


Uhm, well... ok.

I am not sure how that has anything to do with your previous post or more importantly the original question, which was "How do nameservers work, in general?" .

A few points of order. (A) Yes, your ISP -- or whichever NS you are using -- could cache the DNS information to save bandwidth. However, they are supposed to respect the TTL's assigned by the authoritative resolver and should a request come in after the expiration, a new request is made. However, if your ISP's DNS caches the resolution for a host at a domain, which you are now requesting, and it has not timed out, it will provide what is called a non-authoritative answer and provide you the IP itself. It does not forward anything, given that scenario.
(B) Oh my. OK, roots are the TLD's. What exactly do you send out every 5 min? You mean yo update your slave ns's form the master every 5 min? Uh, ok. I am sure your domain is small enough to accommodate 5 min zone transfers.
(C) HUH!? WHOIS was designed for PEOPLE, not for nameservers. (Am I just reading this all wrong again? ) If you are trying to hit a host at a domain, the TLD's respond with a referral to the authoritative NS directly. You then query that, which responds to your machine with the resulting IP for the host. Your machine then attempts to connect via whatever protocol you had initially attempted to that host.
(D) Name servers do NOT forward protocol requests. They respond to requests for name resolution only. They provide your client with the IP address they need to hit a certain host at a certain domain on a certain protocol.

Look I am not trying to be a jerk here, I just want to make sure people don't misunderstand and get the wrong ideas.

Good luck with your migration, BTW. As long as you have it functional and tested, and name it the same as your previous nameserver, you should not experience any downtime.

Best of luck.

Cheers.
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Post 3+ Months Ago

The question has been answered more than once already, and I think
Daemonguy's explanation was clear and easy enough to understand. Is
there any reason we can't accept that and let this go? You are all saying
the same things, just in a different way.

So this doesn't keep going-and-going, it's locked. Thanks for all the good
information everyone.

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